Saturday, October 05, 2019

Methodological Problems With The Nature Study Of Ancient Egypt - SOY Keita Let's Them Have It

COMMENT - This is a response to a study published in Nature titled Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods, which claims that the Ancient Egyptians were genetically the same as the people of North Africa/Middle East. There are many problems with these interpretations, and professor S.O.Y Keita lays them bare one by one. - MrK

Ancient Egyptian Genomes from northern Egypt: Further discussion

Jean-Philippe Gourdine1,4, S.O.Y Keita2,4, Jean-Luc Gourdine3 and Alain Anselin4*1
Oregon Health & Science University, 2Smithsonian Institution, 3National Institute of Agricultural Research, France(Guadeloupe), 4Ankhou/Cahiers Caribéens d'Égyptologie (Guadeloupe, Martinique),*corresponding author: alain.anselin@gmail.com

Schuenemann et al.1 seemingly suggest, based largely on the results of an ancient DNA study of later period remains from northern Egypt, that the ‘ancient Egyptians’ (AE) as an entity camefrom Asia (the Near East, NE), and that modern Egyptians “received additional sub-Saharan African (SSA) admixtures in recent times” after the latest period of the pharaonic era due to the “trans-Saharan slave trade and Islamic expansion.” In spite of the implied generalization about ‘origins’ the authors do offer the caveat that their findings may have been different if samples had been used from southern Egypt, and this is a significant admission. Their conclusions deserve further discussion from multiple perspectives which cannot be fully developed due to space limitations.


There are alternative interpretations of the results but which were not presented as is traditionally done, with the exception of the admission that results from southern Egyptians may have been different.

The alternative interpretations involve three major considerations:

1) sampling and methodology,
2) historiography and
3) definitions as they relate to populations,origins and evolution.


1) Sampling and methodological strategyThe samples can be questioned as to their representativeness of Egypt in terms of size, spatio-temporal and socio-cultural aspects.

●All of the samples are from the northern half of Egypt, from one nome which is 2.4% (1/42) of AE nomes. Ancient Egyptian culture originated southern Upper Egypt2.

●The socio-cultural dynamics are not fully considered: the information on the origin andsocial status is incomplete, or unknowable in fact. The mummies are clearly assumed tobe representative of the local population based on an incomplete archaeological report, in1
spite of the historical information provided about northern Egypt’s interaction with theNear East since the Predynastic, and the known settlements of Greeks, and others, innorthern Egypt in later periods.

●The timeline is not representative of AE history ~ 3,000 years is missing (e.g.Predynastic, Early Dynastic, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom

2) The samples cannot be convincingly said to represent true breeding populations or thosethat truly integrate historical information.

●The authors use Bayesian reconstruction of population size changes through time with BEAST, for which there is generally a discrepancy between the marginal prior and theoriginal prior distribution. The available information on the comparison between original and marginal priors, and on prior and posterior distributions, does not take into account possible population substructure.

Sex-biased sampling (mtDNA) cannot recover population demography of the whole country unless the sample size is large enough and representative in terms of chronology, regional variation, “ethnicities” (including the foreign presence), class and geography. It suffers from many biases that can affect the assessment of the effective population size: population size changes, mutation bias, and natural selection.

●The whole genome sample size is too small (n=3) to accurately permit a discussion of allEgyptian population history from north to south.2) Historiography and misinterpretation

●The authors do not consider explanations based on historical narrative, although theypresent historical information. NE input in AE could also be explained by old mercantile2 relationships with Lower Egypt (e.g. Maadi-Buto complex ~4,000 BC3), EgyptianizedAsiatic rulers and migrants (e.g. Hyksos ~1,650 BC), NE prisoners of war (e.g. from Thutmose III’s military campaign in NE ~ 1,490 BC), from diplomatic marriages2 (e.g.Amenhotep III and Mitanni princess, Gilukhipa~ 1,380 BC), etc.

The authors completely dismiss the results of PCR methods used on AE remains. As a Habicht et al.4 states, PCR based methods were used successfully on mummified Egyptian cats and crocodiles without creating extensive debate. Results that are likely reliable are from studies that analyzed short tandem repeats (STRs) from Amarna royal mummies5 (1,300 BC), and of Ramesses III (1,200 BC)6; Ramesses III had the Y chromosome haplogroup E1b1a, an old African lineage7. Our analysis of STRs from Amarna and Ramesside royal mummies with pop Affiliator18 based on the same published data 5,6 indicates a 41.7% to 93.9% probability of SSA affinities (see Table 1); most of the individuals had a greater probability of affiliation with “SSA” which is notthe only way to be “African” a point worth repeating.

●There are some philosophical issues as well for which space does not permit a full discussion. Conceptually what genetic markers are considered to be “African” or “Asian” needs discussion--and of what “defines” Africa as well. For example, the E1b1b1 (M35/78) lineage found in one Abusir el-Meleq sample is found not only in northern Africa, but is also well represented in eastern Africa7 and perhaps was taken to Europe across the Mediterranean before the Holocene (Trombetta, personal communication). E lineages are found in high frequency (>70%) among living Egyptians in Adaima9. The authors define all mitochondrial M1 haplogroups as “Asian” which is problematic. Gene history is not population history: ultimate “origins” and later sources to a specific region/3 population are conceptually different. Gene history is not also ethnic or linguistic history. M1 has been postulated to have emerged in Africa10, and there is no convincing evidence supporting an M1 ancestor in Asia: many M1 daughter haplogroups (M1a) are clearly African in origin and history10. The M1a1, M1a2a, M1a1i, M1a1e variants found in the Abusir el-Meleq samples1 predate Islam and are abundant in SSA groups10, particularly in East Africa. Furthermore, SSA groups indicated to have contributed to modern Egypt donot match the Muslim trade routes that have been well documented11 as SSA groups from the great lakes and southern African regions were largely absent in the internal trading routes that went north to Egypt. It is important to note that “SSA” influence may not bedue to a slave trade, an overdone explanation; the green Sahara is to be considered as Egypt is actually in the eastern Sahara. SSA affinities of modern Egyptians from AbusirEl-Meleq might be attributed to ancient early settlers as there is a notable frequency of the “Bushmen canine”- deemed a SSA trait in Predynastic samples dating to 4,000 BC9from Adaima, Upper Egypt. Haplogroup L0f, usually associated with southern Africans,is present in living Egyptians in Adaima9 and could represent the product of an ancient“ghost population” from the Green Sahara that contributed widely. Distributions and admixtures in the African past may not match current “SSA” groups12.

3) On the Definition of African

Schuenemann et al.1 seem to implicitly suggest that only SSA equals Africa and that there are no interconnections between the various regions of Africa not rooted in theslave trade, a favorite trope. It has to be noted too that that in the Islamic armies that entered Egypt that there were a notable number of eastern Africans. It is not clear why there is an emphasis on ‘sub-Saharan’ when no Saharan or supra-Saharan population4 samples--empirical or modelled are considered; furthermore, there is no one way to be“sub-Saharan.” In this study northern tropical Africans, such as lower and upper Nubians and adjacent southern Egyptians and Saharans were not included as comparison groups,as noted by the authors themselves.

4) Conclusion

The paleolithic past has to be distinguished from the biocultural emergence in the Holocene of any society, including Europe. Egypt long before the pyramids was culturally and linguistically African as evidenced by numerous studies3,13,14 based on standard research which accept Egypt’s place in the Nile corridor as having local origins. The symbolism found in the Badarian or Naqadan graves, etc. nor the pyramids werebrought from Asia (Near East). The Egyptian Neolithic cannot be shown as an entity to have come from Asia, although some domesticates were borrowed on local terms into asystem of indigenous foraging in the Fayum2. Historical linguistics shows ancientEgyptian to be Afroasiatic with borrowings from other African language phyla15.

Archaeological data would seem to indicate an early integration of the eastern delta, in northern Egypt, by early Upper Egyptian rulers since Iry Hor from Abydos (~3,250 BC),who already wrote royal inscriptions in Egyptian2 in a script and symbolic system that used African flora and fauna3,13. This region of Egypt, and northern Egypt had long had social intercourse with the Near East. The ancient Egyptians in “origin” were not settler colonists akin to the European colonists in Africa. Schuenemann et al.1 study is best seen as a contribution to understanding a local population history in northern Egypt as opposed to a population history of all Egypt from its inception. 5

Table 1: Geographical region affinities of Amarna and Ramesside mummies based onpopAffiliator 18 analysis of 8 pairs of STR 8/13 pairs of STR from Combined DNA Index System were used by Hawass et al.5,6,nevertheless, data suggest main sub-Saharan affinities of pharaonic mummies from the 18th and20th dynasty (circa 1,300 BC), far in the past before Islamic slave trade. Disclaimer:Thegeographical regions affinities were defined according to popAffiliator8, we acknowledge theremight be problems with any type of classification.(* data from Hawass et al.5,6 available herehttp://bit.ly/Pop-Affi-STR-Mummies )ContributionsJ-P.G and S.O.Y Keita performed the PopAffialiator analysis, drew tables, wrote and reviewed the maingenetic, statistical, anthropological and Egyptology portions of the article. J-L. G wrote and review thestatistical portion. A.A wrote and reviewed Egyptological/linguistics portion. Competing interestsThe authors declare no competing financial interestsAbout the authors:Jean-Philippe Gourdine, Ph.D is a metabolomics and glycomics data analyst at Oregon Health & Science University and member of editorial board of the Ankhou/Cahiers Caribéens d'Égyptologie. Email: jpgourdine@gmail.comSOY Keita, MD, D.Phil is a research affiliate of the department of anthropology, Smithsonian Institution and member of editorial board of the Ankhou Cahiers Caribéens d'Égyptologie.Email: soykeita@yahoo.comJean-Luc Gourdine, Ph.D, is a researcher in quantitative genetics at the National Institute of Agricultural Research, France (Guadeloupe)Email: jean-luc.gourdine@inra.fr6

Alain Anselin, Ph.D is the editor of the peer reviewed Egyptological journals Cahiers Caribéens d'Égyptologie & electronic papyrus i-Medjat (http://www.culturediff.org/english/ccde.htm), and director of the research group Ankhou

Email: alain.anselin@gmail.comReferences1.Schuenemann, V. J. et al.Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods. Nat. Commun.8, 15694 (2017).2.Agut-Labordère, D. & García, J. C. M. L’Égypte des pharaons: de Narmer à Dioclétien :3150 av. J.C.- 284 apr. J.-C. (Belin, 2016).3.Teeter, E. Before the Pyramids: The Origins of Egyptian Civilization. (Oriental Institute ofthe University of Chicago, 2011).https://oi-idb-static.uchicago.edu/multimedia/88/oimp33.pdf4.Habicht, M. E., Bouwman, A. S. & Rühli, F. J. Identifications of ancient Egyptian royalmummies from the 18th Dynasty reconsidered. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.159, S216–31(2016).5.Hawass, Z. et al. Ancestry and pathology in King Tutankhamun’s family. JAMA303, 638–647 (2010).6.Hawass, Z. et al. Revisiting the harem conspiracy and death of Ramesses III:anthropological, forensic, radiological, and genetic study. BMJ345, e8268 (2012).7.Rowold, D. et al. At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity andphylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes. Meta Gene2, 670–685 (2014).8.Pereira, L. et al. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a majorpopulation group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile. Int. J. LegalMed.125, 629–636 (2011).9.Crubézy, E. Le peuplement de la vallée du Nil. Archéo-Nil20, 25–42 (2010).7

10.Pennarun, E. et al.Divorcing the Late Upper Palaeolithic demographic histories of mtDNAhaplogroups M1 and U6 in Africa. BMC Evol. Biol.12, 234 (2012).11.Lovejoy, P. E. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. (CambridgeUniversity Press, 2011).12.Busby, G. B. et al. Admixture into and within sub-Saharan Africa. Elife5, (2016).13.Anselin, A. Some Notes about an Early African Pool of Cultures from which Emerged theEgyptian Civilisation. in Egypt in its African Context. Proceedings of the Conference held atThe Manchester Museum, University of Manchester (ed. Exell, K.) 43–53 (Oxford, BARInternational, 2009).14.Wengrow, D., Dee, M., Foster, S., Stevenson, A. & Ramsey, C. B. Cultural convergence inthe Neolithic of the Nile Valley: a prehistoric perspective on Egypt’s place in Africa.Antiquity88, 95–111 (2014).15.Takács, G. Sibilant and velar consonants of South Cushitic and their regular correspondencesin Egyptian and other Afro-Asiatic branches. in Afroasiatica Tergestina. Papers from the 9thItalian Meeting of Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semitic) Linguistics, Trieste 393–426 (1998).8

Annotate

Highlight

Labels: , ,


Read more...

Saturday, September 07, 2019

(LUSAKATIMES) President Mugabe was maligned because of his crusade to bring social justice and equity to Zimbabwe-KK

(LUSAKA TIMES ZM) President Mugabe was maligned because of his crusade to bring social justice and equity to Zimbabwe-KK
September 6, 2019 249 20

First Republican President Kenneth Kaunda has said that it is regrettable that the late President Robert Mugabe was maligned and subjected to mudslinging by some sections of the world who were against his crusade of bringing social justice and equity to Zimbabwe.

In a message of condolences sent to Zimbabwean President Emmerson Mnangagwa and availed to media in Lusaka today, Dr Kaunda said that President Mugabe was unfairly slapped with economic sanctions that hurt the people of Zimbabwe.

Dr Kaunda said that he is devastated by the death of former Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, adding that his death was a moment of heartbreak and sadness for him.

Dr Kaunda recalled that President Mugabe worked hard to fight colonialism, racism, as well as bringing independence to Zimbabwe.

The 95-year-old founding father referred to the late Mugabe as a brother and colleague in the common struggle of liberation for Africa.

Dr Kaunda told President Mnangagwa that he prays that unfriendly forces will not rise and vilify President Mugabe for his governance and development record during his reign in Zimbabwe.

Dr Kaunda prayed that God will comfort Mr Mugabe’s family and the people of Zimbabwe during their time of grief.

President Robert Mugabe died today Friday September 6, 2019 aged 95, in a Singaporean hospital where he has been receiving medical treatment.

The late Mugabe ruled Zimbabwe for 37 years from 1980 to 2017 when he was deposed by the military in a bloodless transition of power.

Labels: ,


Read more...

(BLF SA) We won’t join the demonization of Mugabe

COMMENT - Gukurahandi is a political football, whose numbers were continuously inflated by the rhodesian leadership of the MDC.

We won’t join the demonization of Mugabe
By admin
Posted on September 7, 2019
By Andile Mngxitama

It’s interesting how the white power structure determines our emotions and how we recollect our own suffering. After the Gukurahundi that spanned from 1983 to 1987, the number of Ndebele people murdered was estimated to be around 5000 or so. A large number by any estimate.

The West was then happy when President Robert Mugabe spoke reconciliation. They thought that they had softened him by knighting him and conferring on him numerous medals and recognitions. He was also the recipient of many awards, including human rights awards. In honoring Mugabe they had strategically forgotten about the Gukurahundi.

Come the year 2000! The land return program starts and things change. Mugabe is now a monster. The people who gave him human rights awards now remember the Gukurahundi and up the number of death to 20 000!

Gukurahundi was a horrible inexcusable event. It should have been handled differently. Having said that, we must keep in mind that the South African apartheid regime and Ian Smith were organizing a counter revolution from Matabeleland. They were taking advantage of the tribalism that had affected the liberation movement in Zimbabwe. The apartheid regime had already done it in Angola via Unita; Mozambique via Renamo and South Africa via the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).

There are important questions still to be answered from a revolutionary point of view about what the available options to stop the counter revolution, really were?

What we must resist is the demonization of Mugabe that is ordered by Britain and the larger global white power structure. They hate Mugabe because he addressed the land question. NO, we won’t be told by them to hate one of our own.

Andile Mngxitama is the President of Black First Land First, a revolutionary black consciousness movement.

No related posts.

Labels: , ,


Read more...

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

(THE SOUTH AFRICAN) CR17 donors revealed

COMMENT - Maria Ramos is married to Trevor Manuel, former South African Finance Minister, and today working for the Rothschild Group, Rothschild South Africa and it's client Old Mutual.

Nicky Oppenheimer: South Africa’s richest man, reportedly donated R10 million to the leadership bid.
Raymond Ackerman: The owner of Pick n Pay is said to have dropped a cool R1 million into the funding pool.
Maria Ramos: The ex-ABSA CEO and PIC executive allegedly gave R1 million to the campaign.
Johnny Copelyn: CR17 can thank the owner of the news network eNCA for a R2 million donation.
An anonymous donor: Apparently, one unnamed benefactor pumped R120 million into Cyril’s campaign. Yikes.


(THE SOUTH AFRICAN) CR17 donors revealed: EFF pile in on Ramaphosa and his millionaire funders
It's a disastrous day for Cyril Ramaphosa, as his supposedly dirty laundry gets aired. The EFF have been highly critical of his CR17 funders on Sunday.
Tom Head
by Tom Head 2019-08-11 14:06in News

During Cyril Ramaphosa’s hour of misery, the EFF have arrived in a timely fashion. His CR17 campaign – which earned him the right to lead the ANC and eventually become president – has been the subject of intense scrutiny from Busisiwe Mkhwebane, who is now being accused of illegally obtaining the information.

CR17 donors revealed by the media

In a statement made late on Saturday, the presidency said Ramaphosa had been made aware that confidential banking information of his campaign contributors had been leaked to the media. It’s understood the head of state will seek court action to investigate how Mkhwebane managed to get inside the bank accounts belonging to the president:

“The information, supposedly held only by the Public Protector, includes bank statements of third parties, which record private transactions and which are strictly confidential. This amounts to a violation of the constitutionally enshrined right to privacy. Neither the President nor the campaign has done anything wrong, ethically or legally.”

Statement from the office of Cyril Ramaphosa
Who funded Cyril Ramaphosa and his CR17 campaign?
Ramaphosa was boosted by a victory in court against Busisiwe Mkhwebane last week, regarding the recommended remedial action against Pravin Gordhan. However, his joy seems to have been short-lived, as some rather conspicuous names have been linked to CR17 through a Sunday Independent report. These include:

Nicky Oppenheimer: South Africa’s richest man, reportedly donated R10 million to the leadership bid.
Raymond Ackerman: The owner of Pick n Pay is said to have dropped a cool R1 million into the funding pool.
Maria Ramos: The ex-ABSA CEO and PIC executive allegedly gave R1 million to the campaign.
Johnny Copelyn: CR17 can thank the owner of the news network eNCA for a R2 million donation.
An anonymous donor: Apparently, one unnamed benefactor pumped R120 million into Cyril’s campaign. Yikes.

ABSA Nation Building put R10 million towards CR17, and two Eskom executives – one past and one present – put a combined R1.8 million into Ramaphosa leadership campaign. Andre Crawford-Brunt, a board member of Sygnia, was also a big backer – he put R2 million into the kitty.

Needless to say, the lavish funding hasn’t escaped the attention of the EFF. The red berets have been utilising their Twitter platform to nail Cyril Ramaphosa and his friends in high places. Party Deputy President Floyd Shivambu said that the leaked information proved Ramaphosa was nothing more than a ‘puppet’ for outside influences.

“None of the funders look like the majority of members of the party they hypnotized through cash. Clearly, the white capitalist establishment has rented a president to the erstwhile liberation movement. And most definitely, this is no free later lunch!”

Floyd Shivambu
Meanwhile, EFF Spokesperson Mbuyiseni Ndlozi lambasted Cyril and his donor lists through a series of Tweets, hammering the president for showing that he holds “zero integrity” in his current position.

Labels: , ,


Read more...

Monday, August 05, 2019

(BFLF) Ramaphosa is illegitimate President, he must go!

(BFLF) Ramaphosa is illegitimate President, he must go!
POSTED ON AUGUST 5, 2019 BY BLACK FIRST LAND FIRST
Ramaphosa is illegitimate President, he must go!

Black First Land First (BLF) calls on the African National Congress (ANC) to immediately suspend Cyril Ramaphosa as its President and remove him as President of the country. The leaked emails have not been denied and show beyond reasonable doubt that Ramaphosa is compromised, conflicted, and corrupt. Worse still he is beholden to white monopoly capital (WMC) in that he is bought by it. It is also clear that Ramaphosa is protected by the WMC judiciary. The consequences of this reality is that there shall be no meaningful change in the lives of our people.

The #RamaphosaLeaks show that:

1. Ramaphosa lied to parliament and the nation.
2. Ramaphosa is corrupt.
3. Ramaphosa conspired with WMC to buy the presidency of the ANC in the December 2017 NASREC conference.
4. Ramaphosa is a captured President by Stellenbosch and London.
5. Ramaphosa has already given the country to his handlers.
6. Ramaphosa is protected by the WMC media.
7. Pravin Gordhan is central to the conspiracy to buy the ANC conference with money from Stellenbosch and London.
8. Ramaphosa is an illegitimate President.

BLF is clear! Ramaphosa must go!!!

Right now no women or men of integrity have emerged from within the ANC with the moral rectitude to call for Ramaphosa to go. Even the Umkhonto we Sizwe Military Veterans Association (MKMVA) people are silent!

THIS IS A DISGRACE!!!

Again, BLF is clear! Ramaphosa must go! He said he is fighting corruption, whilst being the most corrupt!

Issued by Black First Land First, National Coordinating Committee of (BLF NCC)

5 August 2019

Contact Details

Black First Land First Mail: blackfirstlandfirst@gmail.com

Zanele Lwana
(BLF Deputy President)
Cell: +27 79 986 7225

Labels: , ,


Read more...

Sunday, July 14, 2019

(PATRIOT ZW) US hand in fake abductions

(PATRIOT ZW) US hand in fake abductions
By Patience Murava - June 27, 20190420
Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter

ZIMBABWE is besieged by non-governmental organisations’ (NGOs) regime change antics despite exposing their illegal machinations time and again.

They have used countless attempts to get the opposition MDC-T into power through the backdoor; using unconventional and illegal tactics, all of which are scripted by their Western handlers.

Attention-seeking actions that provoke the state to act are a sure way for civil society and opposition leaders to gain a few front page screamers in newspapers at home and abroad.

These antics also guarantee their donors and handlers in the West have platforms to further attack the Government and justify continued isolation of Zimbabwe.

There is one particularly tired script the civil society has been using in its attempts to effect regime change.

Over the past few weeks, members from NGOs have been making claims of being abducted, being under surveillance, their lives being in danger and other imagined threats from the Government.

The latest is that of Amalgamated Rural Teachers Union of Zimbabwe (ARTUZ) leader Obert Masaraure who claims to have been abducted, tortured and dumped a day after by suspected State agents.

US behind fake abductions?

The Patriot has established that recently, the US Embassy in Zimbabwe invited nine ARTUZ provincial representatives to Harare for a meeting to discuss the Union’s pending demonstrations.

The meeting was facilitated by ARTUZ board member Douglas Coltart.

The Union has proved beyond reasonable doubt that they have an insatiable appetite for anarchy.

According to the source, the US Embassy offered the ARTUZ members accommodation at their embassy.

US Ambassador to Zimbabwe Brian Nichols encouraged ARTUZ to stage more demonstrations, indicating that it was within their democratic rights.

He added that they are always welcomed at the US Embassy whenever they have any need.

Several local and international NGOs, including prominent regime change agenda activists, have been implicated in an unfolding plot to topple the Government of Zimbabwe through violent protests.

Code-named Savannah Revolution and running under the theme ‘Political Revolution, National Order and Economic Revolution in Zimbabwe’,the operation, to be executed through violent means, is being spearheaded by NGOs.

Last month, several NGO leaders, including Citizens Manifesto co-ordinator Tatenda Mombeyarara, Centre for Community Development in Zimbabwe Advocacy officer George Makoni, Nyasha Frank Mpahlo of Transparency International Zimbabwe and executive director of COTRAD Gamuchirai Mukura were implicated for planning to destabilise a constitutional Government.

More so, another regime change project workshop was held in South Africa, emphasising on the need for what they termed ‘political revolution in Zimbabwe.

The modus operandi for the unseating of the Government would include massive demonstrations, sit-ins, student protests, civil disobedience and online activism.

Abductions that never were

Another issue that was discussed at the meeting with the US Ambassador was abduction of ARTUZ members and other civil society leaders.

ARTUZ claims that 47 of its members have been harassed by State agents, with several abducted, while five others have skipped the borders.

In April, three ARTUZ members, Robson Chere, Jess Drury, Precious Ndlovu and Munyaradzi Ndawana claimed to have been abducted in Greystone Park by four plain-clothed men using one vehicle.

It was, however, discovered that Chere skipped the border to evade arrest.

He was scheduled to leave for the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI) 2019 this month. Interestingly, in 2017, Masaraure attended the Mandela Washington Fellowship (MWF) for Young African Leaders programme.

The fellowship, launched in 2014, is the flagship programme of the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI).

These young African ‘leaders’ are at the forefront of pushing for regime change in Africa, as they have been taught and brainwashed to despise their past and heritage.

YALI was established when the US interests on the continent shifted from opposition political parties to the youths.

The term, ‘generation democracy’, best describes the targeted group.

Upon returning to their home countries, Fellows continue to build on the ‘skills’ they would have learnt during their time in the US through support from US embassies, four regional leadership centres, the YALI Network and customised programming from USAID, the Department of State and affiliated partners.

The Mandela Washington Fellowship is sponsored by the US Department of State, with funding provided by the US Government and administered by the International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX).

But back to the alleged abduction of Masaraure.

It was claimed the union leader was kidnapped when he was on the line with Voice of America Zimbabwe Service, saying he was fearing for his life as he felt he had been followed to his house by suspected members of the Central Intelligence Organisation (CIO).

Voice of America (VOA), headquartered in Washington DC, is funded by the US Government.

Funds are appropriated annually by Congress under the budget for embassies and consulates.

“Minutes after raising concern, loud noise could be heard from the background as the home was being broken into,” reported VOA.

“When VOA tried to reach him a few minutes after he raised alarm, his wife responded in a text, noting that ‘they took him away, they broke our house’.”

Pictures purported to be of Masaraure, with a battered back with old bruises were circulated on social media platforms such as Whatsapp and facebook.

There are also pictures of Masaraure with his head bandaged and his right arm in a sling that circulating on both social and local media as well as a video in which he is thanking Zimbabweans for their thoughts and prayers.

Is it by coincidence that the so-called abduction was done at a time when Zimbabwe was holding a political dialogue forum with the European Union?

Zimbabwe and the EU launched a formal dialogue process based on Article 8 of the Cotonou Partnership Agreement, which governs relations between member-states of the African-Carribean-Pacific regions and the EU.

The development is a major realisation of President Emmerson Mnangagwa’s re-engagement policy which seeks to reintegrate Zimbabwe into the global family of nations.

In an interview, Information, Publicity and Broadcasting Services permanent secretary Nick Mangagwa said the wounds that Masaraure has were malicious and self-inflicted.

“We have checked with the security services, including the police, and they do not know anything about that,” said Mangwana.

“We believe that this was stage managed to put Zimbabwe in very bad light since Zimbabwe and the European Union (EU) have launched formal political dialogue.”

It was however, found out that ARTUZ leader faked the abduction to justify his extended absence from work without official leave since January this year.

Public Service Commission (PSC) has since stopped his salary.

It’s important to note that some reports allege that the abduction of Masaraure was stage managed by MDC-Alliance’s Tendai Biti and Maureen Kademaunga.

“A few days after the abduction, Biti travelled to UK where he met British Foreign Minister and showed him the photoshopped pictures of ARTUZ president Obert Masaraure’s fake abduction,” said another source.

From lies and exaggerations to fake abductions, NGOs and opposition leaders will do anything and everything for attention and donor funding.

No tactic is far-fetched!

Labels: , , , , ,


Read more...

(HERALD ZW) Sanctions now outdated: SB Moyo

(HERALD ZW) Sanctions now outdated: SB Moyo
Foreign Affairs and International Trade minister Dr Sibusiso Busi Moyo addresses businesspeople at Chatham House in London,UK yesterday
Elita Chikwati Senior Reporter

Sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe are outdated and should be removed as they benefit neither Zimbabwe nor the United States of America, the authors of the hostile policy, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Minister Dr Sibusiso Busi Moyo has said.

He said this on Wednesday when he had lunch with the Westminster Africa Business Group in London, United Kingdom.

Minister Moyo said the removal of the sanctions was now long overdue.

“It (sanctions) is something which is now in a former page; in a book which you have read before twice and which we do not want to read anymore. It is not serving the US, the US businesspeople or Zimbabwean people and, therefore, it is outdated,” said Minister Moyo.

“We have been directly dealing with Americans themselves and that is why I was telling you that Americans have seen light in Zimbabwe. They have started coming in serious hordes of numbers in terms of corporates.

“They (General Electric from the US) are going to be building a 2 400MW hydro power station in Zimbabwe. They are going to be investing in the health sector, rolling out a wide and an elaborate health centre.

“They have been offered to go into methane gas deposits and they are already on the ground.”

GE and Power Construction of China have been awarded the tender to implement the 2 400MW Batoka Gorge Hydro Power project at about US$4 billion.

Other US firms are engaged in various economic activities in Zimbabwe, while others are scouting for opportunities, making a strong case for the removal of the ruinous sanctions.

Minister Moyo said although the US has refused to lift the sanctions, Zimbabwe continues to be hospitable by offering its citizens investment opportunities.

The US was also allowed to observe last year’s harmonised elections.

Said Minister Moyo: “We have decided in a way, while we are telling them that the sanctions are outdated, but we have also decided to say American corporates, ignore the outdated piece of paper and move on so that the system, the Congress in the US, can realise that it is not worth any more.

“We have also been engaging Congress, even the actual proponents of the sanctions, even the revised position, Senator Jeff Flake and Chris Coons. We actually invited them to Zimbabwe and they came.

“We have invited all these and they came and looked at the situation and they are also talking to them, feeling internally embarrassed about having been pushing on for the existence of the sanctions; but it is in the US system.

“It is a process rather than an event and we think at the end of the day, they are going to see light and President (Donald) Trump will be able to see light one day,” he said.

Minister Moyo visited London, United Kingdom on a four-day re-engagement programme to strengthen bilateral relations and to woo investment into the country.

Labels: ,


Read more...

Friday, May 24, 2019

(THE PATRIOT ZW) President Museveni’s thoughts on Zim sanctions

COMMENT - More about ZDERA here, including a chart showing the direct relationship between the ZDERA 2001 coming into force and the decline of the Zimbabwe Dollar in 2002, here. - MrK

(THE PATRIOT ZW) President Museveni’s thoughts on Zim sanctions
By The Patriot Reporter - May 9, 2019
By Dr Tafataona Mahoso

I WAS privileged to be at the Zimbabwe International Trade Fair (ZITF) 2019 when His Excellency Yoweri Kaguta Museveni delivered his guest of honour address.

In his address, the guest of honour touched on several related themes: The contribution of African nationalism and pan-Africanism to the liberation of the southern African region from colonialism, apartheid and Rhodesian UDI, which was a great achievement in the global struggle for true human rights; the apparent contradiction of the fact that in the 1970s and 1980s, with far less resources than now, African countries were more effective in exerting their influence in international affairs than they are able to exert in 2019; and, last but not least, the shame of the current illegal economic sanctions on Zimbabwe which Museveni described as an act of moral and diplomatic cowardice.

Although the observation that sanctions on Zimbabwe were an act of cowardice did catch the attention of most journalists and editors, it was not covered beyond mere speech reporting. So its significance was largely missed or ignored. The significance is worth revisiting.

The Western doctrine encompassing free-flow of information, open and transparent society, academic freedom and press freedom is daily contradicted by sanctions on Zimbabwe.

An act of cowardice, in the context of discourse and diplomacy, implies an act of avoidance and denial. Indeed, for the last 20 years, the issue of the illegal and racist sanctions on Zimbabwe has seen Western leaders, their ambassadors and the thousands of journalists and editors roped in to justify the sanctions engaging mostly in avoidance and denial. Here is how:

First, it is only white countries who decided to punish black people with sanctions for daring to take back their land which was stolen by white settlers and abused as well as exploited for 100 years. This fact had to be denied or avoided because the same white powers want to project themselves as democratic societies who have overcome racism and racial discrimination and who are now champions of human rights. So, in this sense, illegal sanctions served to foreclose an international debate on the rights of a whole nation subjected to forced removals and denied access to their best lands, waters and other resources for an entire century. Shutting the door on such an important debate became necessary because it would only result in the West looking really bad and backward.

In the second place, having succeeded in shutting the channels of discourse by resorting to illegal sanctions, the next form of denial perpetrated by the West was to change the subject, to suppress the matter of African majority dispossession and replace it with a one-way propaganda barrage foregrounding theoretical ‘human rights’ as if the forced removal of Africans from their lands, waters and other resources were not in fact a fundamental human rights issue.

In the third place, the West had to set up a skewed mass media system which was intended to create the global perception that it was Zimbabwean society which was closed to debate and dialogue because it was not an ‘open’ and ‘transparent’ society. This set up is demonstrated by the fact that Studio 7 was created as a propaganda vehicle to broadcast one-way into Zimbabwe and its identity had to emphasise Studio 7 while disguising the reality that Studio 7 is a channel of the Voice of America (VOA) which is an instrument of US foreign policy under the US State Department.

This feature is critical for supporting President Museveni’s charge of cowardice because VOA is forbidden by US law from broadcasting into the US.

This is profound because Studio 7 goes out of its way to gather many voices around Zimbabwe whose contributions are consistent with the aims of US policy.

In fact Studio 7, on its face value, appears to be levelling the media playing field in Zimbabwe by providing a North American alternative. But that apparent levelling is fake because it does not level the real field where it would really matter; that is affording the masses of Zimbabwe the opportunity to speak to the masses of the US, people-to-people, bout the damage US policy toward Zimbabwe has inflicted upon ordinary people.

In the fourth place, the effect of the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act (ZDERA), the 2001 US sanctions law on Zimbabwe, has been to spread diplomatic poison to Zimbabwe’s relations with countries other than the UK and US, that is, countries who (except for race and racism) have absolutely nothing to do with the specific quarrel over land which was between Britain and its settler-kith-and-kin on one hand, and the African majority in Zimbabwe, on the other.

One of those white countries is Sweden, whose Ambassador here in 2008, also went on a crusade of denial about sanctions.

On Friday, November 7 2008, the Swedish Ambassador to Zimbabwe, Mr Sten Rylander, made an unusual solo appearance on ZTV’s programme Talking Business where he was interviewed by Supa Mandiwanzira of Mighty Movies.

For those who are trained to read situations in addition to merely verbal statements and texts, the Swedish Ambassador’s appearance was significant in several respects:

It was on the same Talking Business programme on 18 July 2001 that the then MDC spokesman Learnmore Jongwe appealed to Zimbabweans to celebrate the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Bill which was pending in the US Congress.

This Bill became the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act (ZIDERA) in the same year. The only difference between Jongwe in July 2001 and Rylander in November 2008 was that I was given the opportunity to challenge Jongwe on the same programme in 2001 but this time Rylander’s appearance was a solo performance with only the host as an indirect and weak challenger. Both Jongwe and Rylander lied to ZTV viewers by claiming that ZIDERA was not a sanctions Bill but was meant to promote democracy in Zimbabwe and to ban a few undesirable leaders from international travel.

Rylander’s appearance on November 7 2008, just like Jongwe’s intervention on July 18 2001, was part and parcel of a long series of externally orchestrated and world-wide events intended to influence Zimbabwe and the SADC region. Zimbabwean patriots found themselves having to respond to this form of external aggression. Rylander’s appearance was also meant to raise the value and bargaining power of MDC-T and Morgan Tsvangirai on the eve of the SADC Summit scheduled for that same weekend in Sandton, South Africa, where Zimbabwe’s interparty agreement on an Inclusive Government was going to be discussed.

Spy-sponsored documentaries on CNN, BBC and other Western channels celebrated the effects of the illegal economic war on Zimbabwe and its direct impact on ordinary citizens.

Among related events at the time of Rylander’s appearance were a number of spy-sponsored documentaries on CNN, BBC and other Western channels celebrating the effects of the illegal economic war on Zimbabwe and its direct impact on ordinary citizens. As usual, the spy-sponsored documentaries, just like Rylander, never mentioned sanctions nor admitted that ZIDERA was indeed a US declaration of economic war upon the same suffering people of Zimbabwe.

Indeed, the claim that ZIDERA was just a travel ban to promote democracy in Zimbabwe was contradicted not only by the fact that Zimbabwe’s leaders have always been able to travel and were in fact going to travel to SA as Rylander appeared on ZTV. The claim was also contradicted by former US Ambassador to Zimbabwe Christopher Dell when he told students and faculty at Africa University on November 2 20005 that:

“The Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act is the cornerstone of US policy toward Zimbabwe. Under the Act, the United States conditions aid and financing for Zimbabwe….” Indeed this had nothing to do with travel bans.

Yet, without crediting the decline of Zimbabwe’s economy to the same sanctions, Ambassador Dell bragged that according to the Washington-based Centre for Global Development (CGD) the economic crisis in Zimbabwe had set the country back by 52 years by 2005! The [CGD] paper calculated that the purchasing power of the average Zimbabwean in 2005 had fallen back to the same level as 1953, according to Dell.

In other words, Rylander, Dell and Learnmore Jongwe were all begging the question: Why would the entire US Government make a mere personal travel ban the ‘cornerstone’ of its policy toward Zimbabwe and how could a country’s economy be set back half a century within five years without economic war? This second question is particularly important since the massive decline happened without any change in government. The same Government associated with development progress and improving living conditions from 1980 to 2000 was still in power in 2005. If indeed the Government’s corruption was the real explanation why would it cause such a precipitous decline only after 1999? What really happened to the economy between 1999 and 2005 or 2008?

Rylander did not speak just for the country he was paid to represent in Zimbabwe. He spoke on behalf of all the sponsors of regime change and external interference in Zimbabwe.

That Rylander was a front for all the others became clear also in his desperate efforts to fool the Zimbabwean public into continuing to believe that western aid would flood Zimbabwe as soon as President Mugabe and ZANU-PF handed over to Mr Morgan Tsvangirai’s MDC-T all the cabinet posts and powers demanded by the West through Tsvangirai.

In the fifth place, the effect of the US sanctions has been to destroy the journalistic and intellectual integrity of many media houses on the issue of Zimbabwe.

Former Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Governor, Dr Gideon Gono wrote a book on the sanctions while he was still in office. Instead of journalists and editors, compromised by donor funds from the West coming out at least to criticise the book where they did not agree with it, the response was a complete black-out. Never mind that the same editors and journalists continued their role of denying the existence of sanctions altogether or misnaming them as ‘travel bans’.

At the core of their denial was the question and meaning of sanctions which Dr Gono tackled on Page 97 of his book Zimbabwe’s Casino Economy: Extraordinary Measures for Extraordinary Challenges.

This was Dr Gono’s view of illegal sanctions, according to his book, on Page 97:

“I believe that, if properly scrutinised in diplomacy, politics and ethics, it should not be very difficult to appreciate that illegal economic sanctions are not different from sanitised terrorism. As instruments of foreign policy, the objectives of terror and illegal economic sanctions are the same: terror, which is generally described as a state of fear or an overwhelming sense of imminent danger.

The individuals, institutions and companies in Zimbabwe that have been targeted for sanctions from the powerful Western countries are supposed to be terrorised by a continuing sense of imminent danger. The same is true of ordinary people who are being made to understand that economic sanctions would not be lifted as long as ZANU-PF and President Mugabe remain in power.”

Indeed, according to Oxford University lecturer Blessing Miles-Tendi’s Making History in Mugabe’s Zimbabwe: Intellectuals, History and Media, even university academics were not spared. Many went out their way to distort their research against Zimbabwe in order to fit the western template and to get paid.

In other words, Ugandan President Museven’s observation that white sanctions against Zimbabwe were an act of cowardice is correct. The Western doctrine encompassing free-flow of information, open and transparent society, academic freedom and press freedom is daily contradicted by sanctions on Zimbabwe. These sanctions have made necessary the setting of a huge propaganda façade characterised by denial and avoidance.

That is why Zimbabwe’s Second Republic has made re-engagement with the West the major plank in its foreign policy: Because sanctions, as denial and avoidance, have shut the door on dialogue.



Labels: , ,


Read more...

Sunday, May 19, 2019

KCM TAX EVASION

COMMENT - “Why should they tell us they are making losses from the time they came? If they were making losses, they could have gone. They are liars, cheats and take us for fools. I will not allow that. Those that want to work with us will follow our laws. It’s a sovereign state and if we say the way we want to manage our tax regime we decide we will not be blackmailed by investors. Those that don’t want to stay can go. Sales tax is here to stay, VAT is gone. We decide,” said President Lungu."

From 2014: Anil Agarwal brags about the amount of money he dragged out of Zambia. "KONKOLA Copper Mines owner Anil Agarwal has mocked the Zambian government over the paltry amount of money he paid to buy the mine, which is now giving him millions of dollars in profit.".

http://maravi.blogspot.com/2014/05/comment-i-hope-this-is-final-push-in.html

(LUSAKA TIMES) KCM TAKING US FOR FOOLS…if it’s the will of the people to divorce, I will do so – Lungu
By Charles tembo in Ndola
on May 18, 2019

PRESIDENT Edgar Lungu says Konkola Copper Mines are liars, cheats and want to take Zambians as fools. President Lungu said he is on the Copperbelt to end the marriage between his government and Konkola Copper Mines.

He said “enough is enough of exploitation from KCM” despite buying the mine so cheaply.

President Lungu said this upon arrival at the Simon Mwansa Kapwepwe International Airport in Ndola yesterday.

“We had a few matters to do at State House in Lusaka and of course, the Vice-President came back last night and I had to go and see her, she is doing very well. But my coming here is for one reason, one reason, the people of the Copperbelt want a divorce between themselves and copper mines namely KCM and Mopani. I want to hear it from the unions and the reason is simple, people have cried! I saw some women, some of them half naked crying that they feel cheated by the mining company KCM, and Mopani to some extreme,” President Lungu said.

“I have come here that if it’s the will of the people to divorce, I will do so. The message being made is clear. I want to consult the Chamber of Mines. I will be meeting them. The Mineworkers Union and other unions to find out what they think and I also have my position, and my position is that enough is enough. Zambians have been taken for a ride by the mining companies.”

He said KCM was bought so cheaply.

President Lungu said the Attorney General Likando Kalaluka and other lawyers would guide on how to share assets.

“KCM was bought for (US$) 25 million and we paid it all, our copper paid for the mines. They have done nothing since then, just promises, we can’t continue…. I am aware that there is a law in this country which should be followed, the Attorney General is here, the lawyers are here and will guide us on how we proceed with the divorce. So we will talk without any fear,” he said.

“I want to say this frankly because I know the opposition, those detractors who don’t see any good in what we do will be saying he is scaring investors. We are not going to scare any investor. Their investment is safe and those who want to come and invest should do so. I know there are other investors who are willing to come and invest in the mines. Immediately we kick them [KCM and Mopani] out, others will come and invest. There is engagement and disengagement even in marriage if things go bad…I am saying this without fear or favour.”

President Lungu said KCM had made enough profits.

“They have made money and taken money. We will ask the lawyer to tell us how we will share the assets and I know we will get married very soon. These are our mines.”

“Why should they tell us they are making losses from the time they came? If they were making losses, they could have gone. They are liars, cheats and take us for fools. I will not allow that. Those that want to work with us will follow our laws. It’s a sovereign state and if we say the way we want to manage our tax regime we decide we will not be blackmailed by investors. Those that don’t want to stay can go. Sales tax is here to stay, VAT is gone. We decide,” said President Lungu.

Labels: , , , , ,


Read more...

Tuesday, April 30, 2019

(HERALD ZW) Sanctions must go — Gutu

COMMENT - After 17 years, the MDC admits to the existence of economic sanctions, their deleterious effect on the Zimbabwean people and economy, and their own role in the creation of those sanctions. Obviously, it cannot be enough to just admit to this criminal wrongdoing, which years ago was estimated to have cost the Zimbabwean people $42 billion, let alone lives lost. Therefore compensation must be paid to the Zimbabwean people, not only to restore their wealth and acknowledge a wrong committed, but to deter future governments from imposing economic sanctions as as tool of economic and foreign policy. They must consider the consequences before imposing such sanctions again. - MrK

More here: http://maravi.blogspot.com/2010/04/sticky-mrk-zimbabwe-dollar-collapse.html

(HERALD ZW) Sanctions must go — Gutu
Felex Share Senior Reporter

Former MDC-T spokesperson Mr Obert Gutu has admitted that the sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe by the West are toxic and hinder socio-economic development.

Calling for the removal of the embargo in toto, Mr Gutu — who is now the vice president of the MDC led by Dr Thokozani Khupe — said he was “misguided” in actively supporting the imposition of sanctions.

He added that all along he “naively” believed that the embargo would lead to the democratisation of Zimbabwe.

Mr Gutu in an editorial we publish in this paper today said the fact that he had seen the light on the contentious issue did not mean that he was now supporting the ruling Zanu-PF party .

“Where the overall interests of Zimbabwe supersede and overtake my own private and personal interests, I don’t hesitate to sacrifice my personal interests for the common good of my beloved country and continent,” he said.

“This is the major reason that informed how I reached my Damascus (sic) moment regarding the issue of sanctions against Zimbabwe. Here and now, I will fully admit that at one time, I was thoroughly misguided in actively supporting and actually calling for the imposition of sanctions against Zimbabwe.

“At that juncture, I rather stupidly and naively believed that the imposition of sanctions would naturally lead to the full and total democratisation of Zimbabwe. I was wrong; totally wrong. The reality is that sanctions actually cause more harm, political suffering and socio-economic agony to the majority of innocent Zimbabweans, most of whom are not even political activists.”

He said sanctions did not hurt political leaders as much as they hurt “the ordinary man and woman in the street and in the village or township.”

“After undertaking a thorough and deep study and introspection on the effects of sanctions on the generality of the people of Zimbabwe, I then reached my Damascus (sic) moment and began to appreciate how evil, toxic and retrogressive sanctions are against the welfare of the majority of my Zimbabwean compatriots.

“Thus, I’m unashamedly and passionately calling for the lifting of all forms of sanctions that were imposed against Zimbabwe by the major Western powers such as the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union,” he said.


Labels: , , , ,


Read more...

Thursday, February 14, 2019

(BLACK OPINION SA) Apartheid spy, Cyril Ramaphosa, must go!

COMMENT - The West continuously undermines democracy by installing or promoting neoliberal corporatists or representatives of the old colonial class in disguise, even through the Liberation Movements. That's why they're so enthusiastic about the new leaders of the ANC and ZANU-PF. Donald Trump literally announced the installation of a new President in Venezuela on twitter. For democracy to rule, the people must have their own unbought, uncompromised candidates. Or there has to be direct democracy - bypass the politicians altogether. - MrK

(BLACK OPINION SA) Apartheid spy, Cyril Ramaphosa, must go!
By admin Posted in Featured News Posted on February 14, 2019
By Andile Mngxitama

The nation must thank Cope leader, Mosiuoa “Terror” Lekota, for speaking the truth yesterday at the SONA debate. Throughout history, there has been a lot of speculation about Cyril Ramaphosa being an apartheid agent. Now Lekota has finally spoken out. The three minutes Lekota was on the podium was worth a thousands minutes. Lekota spoke directly when most of the opposition have been subdued since the State of the Nation Address.

For this, Terror Lekota is the undisputed hero of the SONA Debate.

The history of Ramaphosa and white monopoly capital is well documented and he is proud of it. Ramaphosa was raised and taken care of by the criminal Oppenheimer family. This is the family which benefited immensely from apartheid and its disastrous migrant labour system. At one stage, the family owned most of the economy of South Africa. The Oppenheimer family are heirs of the bloody loot of Cecil John Rhodes. They are the owners of the global giant Anglo American.

When student leaders where facing multiple detentions, torture and death in the 1970s, Ramaphosa was being protected and funded by the criminal Oppenheimer family. His schooling was paid for by them. When they were satisfied that he could serve them, they made him start a trade union in their mines with the view of controlling the workers. That’s how National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) was formed.

Ramaphosa was mentored to be a stooge of white monopoly capital. It is therefore not surprising at all that he is also an agent of the apartheid regime. These revelations by Lekota raise too many questions. Since Ramaphosa was close to the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) of Steve Biko, we are left to wonder if he had any hand in the assassinations of the prominent BCM leaders like Abram Onkgopotse Tiro, Mapetla Mohapi, Mthuli ka Shezi and Steve Biko himself.

Ramaphosa was being taken care off by the same people who worked tirelessly to eliminate the BCM. Did he help the apartheid regime destroy the BCM?

There are also questions about how Ramaphosa replaced both Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma from the center of the negotiations process in the 1990s. There is evidence that the removal of the two was instigated by the apartheid regime and white monopoly capital. Putting Ramaphosa as head of the negotiations ensured that the apartheid regime was basically negotiating with itself. This explains the sell-out settlement that is codified in Section 25 of the Constitution which legitimizes land theft. It was a gift from Ramaphosa, the apartheid agent.

South Africa cannot be ruled by someone who is linked to the apartheid regime and white monopoly capital. Ramaphosa is a sell-out.

Black First Land First (BLF) demands the following:

1. Ramaphosa must resign as state President now!

2. If he doesn’t resign, the African National Congress (ANC) must recall him.

3. He must apologize to the nation for collaborating with the enemy during apartheid.

4. A Commission of inquiry into the claims that Ramaphosa was an apartheid agent be set up.

Furthermore, we ask President Jacob Zuma to release his intelligence report on Ramaphosa’s link to the apartheid regime and white monopoly capital.

BLF will make sure Ramaphosa is removed from the Presidency. Already, we can see that every decision he has made since becoming president is calculated to serve white interests. He has already given white monopoly capital the gift of R1.4 trillion under the guise of the Independent Power Producers (IPPs). He has removed and persecuted all the radical economic transformation (RET) leadership core. He is en route to giving the oil discovered recently to whites. Plans are afoot to sell state owned entities to white monopoly capital, starting with Eskom.

The Marikana massacre was not an accident. Ramaphosa operates like an apartheid agent – he doesn’t care for black lives. No serious nation can allow itself to be ruled by agents of its oppressors. Ramaphosa must go!

No related posts.

Labels: , , , , ,


Read more...

Thursday, January 24, 2019

(FIN24, BLOOMBERG) ANC calls for end to sanctions against Zimbabwe

COMMENT - The ANC calls for an end to economic sanctions against Zimbabwe. - MrK

ANC calls for end to sanctions against Zimbabwe
Jan 22 2019 20:52 Amogelang Mbatha, Bloomberg

African National Congress has called for the lifting of sanctions against neighboring Zimbabwe, where clashes between security forces and anti-government protesters claimed at least 12 lives.

The ANC thought those who imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe during the rule of President Robert Mugabe would change their view after elections that were held in July, Lindiwe Zulu, a member of the party’s highest decision-making body and minister of small business development, told reporters in Johannesburg ON Tuesday.

That’s “despite the challenges that came immediately after that with the deaths of some people,” she said.

Zimbabwe is still subject to US sanctions dating back to the rule of Mugabe, who stepped down in November 2017 and was replaced by Emmerson Mnangagwa. His government is facing the worst economic crisis since a hyperinflationary spiral a decade ago as the nation reels from an acute shortage of foreign exchange and fuel and surging food prices, which led to violent protests last week.

Subscribe to Fin24’s newsletter here
The US has said sanctions would be lifted only if Zimbabwe demonstrated "fundamental changes."

South Africa and Zimbabwe have close links because many of the estimated four million Zimbabweans who were driven away by the economy’s collapse under Mugabe live in South Africa.

"We are concerned about what is happening in Zimbabwe," Zulu said. “Zimbabwe is our neighbor and when a house is burning next door you don’t fold your hands and arms and say ‘it’s got nothing to do with me’.”

South Africa has offered to use its influence with the International Monetary Fund and World Bank to help broker a debt-clearance plan for Zimbabwe, according to a person familiar with the matter.


Read more...

Monday, January 21, 2019

(HERALD ZW) Protests weren’t about fuel prices . . .broader political plot exposed

COMMENT - The best analysis of the situation is by The Herald:

"the timing of the demonstrations and their violent nature were meant to influence the European Union (EU) to maintain illegal sanctions on Zimbabwe."

Mr Chaibva, a former MDC official, said this had always been the opposition party’s agenda.

“It is the continuation of the MDC-Alliance agenda of August 1, 2018 of trying to make the country ungovernable. The MDC-Alliance are in pursuit of a foreign agenda which started in 2001the regime change agenda and the imposition of illegal economic sanctions. It explains the timing of the disturbances when the President is in Eastern Europe and soon in Switzerland. The EU is meeting soon to review economic sanctions on Zimbabwe. They must therefore find an excuse for extension of the sanctions, citing alleged deterioration of the human rights situation in Zimbabwe. It also explains why they are anxious to petition that the President should not attend the Davos summit,” said Mr Chaibva.

He added: “Let us not be under any illusion that the regime change protagonists are at rest. They are expanding their efforts.”



(HERALD ZW) Protests weren’t about fuel prices . . .broader political plot exposed

A motorist weaves his way past rocks that had been used by MDC rioters to block the road in Harare on Monday

Herald Reporter

The MDC-Alliance instigated violent protests witnessed early this week had nothing to do with an increase in the price of fuel or high cost of living among Zimbabweans, but part of the broader attempt at effecting illegal regime change, analysts said yesterday.

The timing of the protests, targeting of police stations for attacks, inflating of the number of victims by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and petitions to the international community, among other shenanigans by those who initiated the demonstrations, all point to a poorly-concealed political agenda oiled by the country’s traditional foes.

“The fuel issue was only manipulated as a trigger to long-standing efforts to internationalise domestic politics in Zimbabwe in a manner skewed in favour of the MDC-Alliance,” said political analyst, Mr Goodwine Mureriwa.

He said MDC-Alliance was trying to reinforce a false argument that the post-election outcome produced an illegitimate Zanu-PF Government.

He questioned why, if President Mnangagwa’s economic policies were not working, he was not being given the chance to fail instead of engaging in disruptive behaviour.

Mr Mureriwa also said the timing of the demonstrations and their violent nature were meant to influence the European Union (EU) to maintain illegal sanctions on Zimbabwe.

He said it was also aimed at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to impose illegal sanctions on the country.

“This explains why the so-called Zimbabwe Doctors for Human Rights is inflating the number of those injured to create a pretext for intervention on humanitarian grounds. They want to create a pretext for abuse of human rights, violation of the rule of law and to paint the whole politics of Zimbabwe as undemocratic,” added Mr Mureriwa.

He said this also explained why the demonstrators deliberately targeted police stations for attack.

“They targeted police stations for attack so as to provoke a firm response by the police that could lead to many casualties. Their objective will not be achieved without dead bodies and to strengthen their resolve, they also had to bomb their own offices (Harvest House) to portray Zanu-PF as a doctor of violence, violence which they instigated,” said Mr Mureriwa.

Another analyst who refused to be named said the violent protests were also “to throw spanners in President Mnangagwa’s engagement and re-engagement efforts for Zimbabwe to remain a pariah State”.

He said geopolitically, there were countries which were not happy about the close ties President Mnangagwa was forging with Eurasia due to the lukewarm attitude of the West despite all his reform efforts.

President Mnangagwa is in Eastern Europe on an engagement drive that will also see him in Davos, Switzerland, for the World Economic Forum.

Another political analysts, Mr Gabriel Chaibva, applauded the security forces for exercising the highest standards of self-restraint in the face of provocation by opposition forces “itching for dead bodies” so as to create a human rights situation in Zimbabwe and the resultant international consequences.

“There is nothing as provocative as trying to get a gun from a soldier or attacking a police station. They were hoping for many dead bodies that would justify their outcry about human rights violations. Let us forget their lie that the protests were about economics. There is a broader political agenda to overthrow Government through unconstitutional means,” said Mr Chaibva.

Mr Chaibva, a former MDC official, said this had always been the opposition party’s agenda.

“It is the continuation of the MDC-Alliance agenda of August 1, 2018 of trying to make the country ungovernable. The MDC-Alliance are in pursuit of a foreign agenda which started in 2001the regime change agenda and the imposition of illegal economic sanctions. It explains the timing of the disturbances when the President is in Eastern Europe and soon in Switzerland. The EU is meeting soon to review economic sanctions on Zimbabwe. They must therefore find an excuse for extension of the sanctions, citing alleged deterioration of the human rights situation in Zimbabwe. It also explains why they are anxious to petition that the President should not attend the Davos summit,” said Mr Chaibva.

He added: “Let us not be under any illusion that the regime change protagonists are at rest. They are expanding their efforts.”

Mr Richard Mahomva said the MDC-Alliance and its partners were hiding behind the new fuel price to cause chaos.

“The violent response to what was an inevitable policy position on the fuel price was a concerted agenda to perpetuate the legacy of 1 August. It is the same old approach of manipulating gullible public emotional outrage to stage a war with ZANU-PF. The underpinning matter here is not the fuel price rise; it is about finding an opportunity to give traction to the ZANU-PF illegitimacy crusade post the 2018 elections,” said Mr Mahomva.

“As one would note, the shutdown plan only excelled in urban opposition hotspots, hence the outcry on the internet jam. From the outset, there was no constructive mechanism to engage a policy alternative and one notes that this is part of the long promised measure by the opposition to make the country ungovernable. Of note is the opposition’s hidden hand in the recent plunder just as was the case in August,” he said.

The Herald is reliably informed that the protests were funded to the tune of US$2 million by a foreign power and were supposed to leave at least 200 people dead.

This, it was planned, would then see the UN Security Council intervening on humanitarian grounds.

Labels: , ,


Read more...

Saturday, January 19, 2019

(THE CITIZEN SA) BLF deputy president attacked at home at 2am

COMMENT- "The BLF insists that rich apartheid-era business families such as the Oppenheimers and the Ruperts should also be investigated for “capture” of the state, which they contend continued well into democracy." This is not an opinion that is peculiar to the BLF. It's reality that insists. The history of Anglo-American Corporation, founded by sir Ernest Oppenheimer. Notice all the little carts in South Africa. - MrK

(THE CITIZEN SA) BLF deputy president ‘attacked, strangled’ at home at 2am
Citizen reporter

BLF leader Andile Mngxitama and his deputy Zanele Lwana.

The party sees the robbery as an attempt at political intimidation.
Black First Land First (BLF) said on Saturday afternoon that its deputy president was attacked in the early hours of Saturday morning.

In a statement, spokesperson Lindsay Maasdorp said: “A stranger gained entry at the flat of the deputy president of BLF around 2am on Saturday. The doors were locked. The stranger physically attacked comrade Zanele Lwana, who fought the intruder back. During the scuffle, other comrades woke up and the intruder fled with two phones, including one of the deputy president.

The party condemned in the strongest possible terms the attack on Lwana.

“The intruder tried to strangle the deputy president, leaving her with an injured neck and bruises on her arms. BLF beliefs this was not a chance criminal act but a politically motivated act to try to intimidate the deputy president with the hope of making her back off from submitting evidence to the Zondo commission on state capture.”

Lwana is due to give evidence to the Zondo Commission on the 12th of February.

“What is sad is that the police who were called to the crime scene were totally unhelpful and refused to open a case.

“BLF will inform the commission about this attempt to intimidate the deputy president of our movement. BLF warns all those implicated in corruption to now back off because nothing will stop the BLF from submitting evidence to judge Zondo.”

The BLF has already deposed to affidavits to the state capture commission on the alleged misconduct of former minister Nhlanhla Nene and Minister Pravin Gordhan.

The party has told the commission there has been state capture, corruption and fraud in the public sector that is not connected to the Guptas, whom the party and its leader have defended staunchly for years.

Asked for comment on whether he would be testifying at the commission, BLF president Andile Mngxitama said Lwana would deal with the BLF’s submissions on Nene and Gordhan, as Mngxitama would be “going for the Oppenheimers”.

The BLF insists that rich apartheid-era business families such as the Oppenheimers and the Ruperts should also be investigated for “capture” of the state, which they contend continued well into democracy.

(Compiled by Charles Cilliers)

Labels: , ,


Read more...

Monday, November 19, 2018

(BLACK OPINION SA) Duduzane Zuma pens open letter to Pravin Gordhan

Duduzane Zuma pens open letter to Pravin Gordhan
By admin Posted in Featured News Posted on August 29, 2017
By BO Staff Writer

President Jacob Zuma’s son, Duduzane Zuma, wrote an explosive open letter to the former minister of finance, Pravin Gordhan. Read the full letter below:

Pravin Gordhan – How do you sleep at night?

Mr Gordhan, you were Finance Minister of this country for over six of the last eight years, yet take no responsibility for this country’s economic performance in that time. It is always somebody else’s fault.

While you were in charge at Treasury, starting in 2009, the South Africa economy flatlined, unemployment rose from 21% to 27% and national debt increased from 31% to a record 51%. These are the facts and history will judge you on them.

You have used various state bodies such as the FIC and the Reserve Bank to try and destroy me and my business colleagues with no proof of misconduct. Yet you accuse us of state capture.

You had no shame in wasting taxpayers’ money on your recent legal action, which everybody knew was a waste of time and taxpayers’ money – and which you lost. If you had any conscience you would pay those costs back personally, but you never will.

It has long been rumoured that you own shares in various large South African companies, especially financial services, an area where you have consistently blocked a state bank and more competition. Yet you made no public disclosure of your holdings or noted the potential for conflicts of interest with your decision-making.

All of my bank accounts have been closed by your “friends” in the banking industry. Likely with your support. Anybody can see that you are in bed with them, rather than on the side of hard-working South African citizens.

Let us deal with some key facts that the media has published but chooses largely to ignore:

The Competition Commission charges monopoly businesses regularly in this country. Nothing ever happens to them. Instead they become part of “Save SA”.
The banks are charged with currency rigging and instead get immunity if they help the investigation.

ABSA still owes billions of Rand in interest from its previous corruption
British American Tobacco is involved in a spying scandal in South Africa
African Bank was declared bankrupt, people’s money was eaten. Then shareholders with government money restart the same bank and all debts are forgiven.

Construction companies are found guilty of billions of Rand of fraud at the FIFA World Cup – their bank accounts remain open.

The Integrated Financial Management System scandal occurred on your watch
You released your Chief Procurement Officer Kenneth Brown and arranged a job for him at Standard Bank as Public Sector Head.

Why are their bank accounts still open? Why are you not calling for inquiries and prosecutions? Yet you ignore all of this and persecute me and my business partners. However:

There were no conclusive findings in the state capture report.

A Hawks investigation against me and Gupta family came up with no wrong doing
The ANC invited all whistle blowers to report against me and my business colleagues – which came up with nothing
And still you say we are corrupt – and others are clean.

You are a conspiracy theorist who failed as a Minister of this great country. You grandstand in Parliament and embarrass this country. Do you not think that the people of this country can see what you are doing?

People are innocent until proven guilty. I challenge you – take me to Court if you think you have a case.

Also, you never, ever, want to acknowledge this, but the Gupta family and I have consistently welcomed a Judicial Commission of Inquiry into all state capture.

I, and the Gupta family, pledged 15 months ago to exit our South African investments to make sure the jobs of our fellow South Africans are protected. It has taken a while, but we have done it. You criticise this sale, as you don’t care about jobs for ordinary people, and if it doesn’t fit you and your political agenda.

How do you sleep at night? Does putting over 7,500 South Africans out of work even bother you?

You even criticised the new Mining Charter, which was created for the benefit of ordinary South Africans. You will always protect your friends in big business over the ordinary man.

The youth of this country that is desperate for hope and a chance to succeed, will eventually see you exposed for what you are.

I am selling my shares to be able to focus my time on clearing my name. At this point I would advise you to refrain from further public statements which could affect the current sales and my reputation. I reserve my rights to pursue legal action for the harm you are causing.

Yours sincerely





Labels: , , , ,


Read more...

Tuesday, October 30, 2018

(DAILY MAVERICK SA) Declassified: Apartheid Profits – Tiny Rowland, a very British spy?

COMMENT - People should also study the Rand Rebellion of 1922, when General Smuts did the same thing, only he also involved the airforce to shoot miners. - MrK

Declassified: Apartheid Profits – Tiny Rowland, a very British spy?
OPEN SECRETS SOUTH AFRICA 16 OCT 2017 11:48 (SOUTH AFRICA) Photo: Roland ‘Tiny’ Rowland (Evening Standard)

Welcome to the 12th article in the series, “Declassified: Apartheid Profits”. While researching the recently published book Apartheid Guns and Money: A Tale of Profit, Open Secrets collected approximately 40,000 archival documents from 25 archives in seven countries. This treasure trove contains damning details of the individuals and corporations that propped up apartheid and profited in return. Many of these documents were kept secret until now. Most remain hidden despite South Africa’s transition to democracy. OPEN SECRETS believes that it is vital to allow the public to scrutinise the primary evidence. This week we turn to British businessman Tiny Rowland, and another of Pretoria’s international allies: Margaret Thatcher’s United Kingdom.

The 16th of August 2012 is a date most South Africans will never forget. It was the day that police shot and killed 34 mineworkers and injured a further 78 on a koppie in Marikana. This was the single largest use of deadly force against civilians in South Africa since the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960. The mineworkers were struggling for a living wage. A struggle that was met with live ammunition from the police who shot many of the protesting mineworkers in the back as they turned to flee. The Marikana massacre will remain one of the most shameful moments in Jacob Zuma’s scandal-ridden presidency.

The mining company at the centre of the tragedy was the British platinum giant, Lonmin. It was later revealed that Cyril Ramaphosa, a powerful Lonmin shareholder and future ANC, and South Africa's, Deputy President, had urged “concomitant action” that led to the brutal crackdown against the striking miners. At stake for Lonmin was the supply of cheap black labour that allowed it to reap mega-profits on the platinum belt. The massacre brutally underscored that Lonmin would stop at nothing to uphold its historical modus operandi of profiting from exploitation.

Lonmin was formerly the London and Rhodesian Mining and Land Company (Lonrho), incorporated in 1909 and synonymous with British capital expansion in Africa. For over 30 years from 1962 the company was controlled by Roland “Tiny” Rowland. Rowland was a controversial British business tycoon described in 1973 by Conservative Prime Minister Edward Heath as “the unpleasant and unacceptable face of capitalism”.

Born in India in 1917 to a British mother and German father, Rowland lived in Germany in the 1930s where he had a spell in the Hitler Youth, and later in Britain where he attended an elite boarding school. During both world wars, his parents were interned in detention camps and Rowland himself was interned during WWII on the Isle of Man. These experiences stoked Rowland’s long-held mistrust for the British establishment which would never dissipate.

Newly declassified South African Military Intelligence records show that as early as 1975 Rowland was a middleman and source of intelligence for the apartheid regime. Since the late 1940s, Rowland had been based in Zimbabwe – then Southern Rhodesia – and had fervently cultivated relationships with Africa’s new political elite. The strategy paid off, and when independence swept through Africa, Rowland was rumoured to have better contacts among the new heads of state in Africa than British spy agency MI5. These connections ranged from Muammar Gaddafi in Libya to Zambia’s Kenneth Kaunda, and made him the perfect spy.

Rowland was able to combine these connections with his insider status in the UK and the US, in order to act as the perfect middleman. This is echoed in briefings given by Rowland to apartheid defence officials in the 1970s. The records reveal that Rowland had met with the number one and two in the US State Department, Henry Kissinger and Joseph Sisco, to discuss the role of Unita in Angola.

On reporting the meeting to the South Africans, Rowland confirmed that Kissinger had proposed bribing the Portuguese with an $80-million loan to delay their withdrawal from Angola in order to buy time for the South Africans by a few months. The SADF was at this time heavily engaged in the Angolan conflict. Clearly they trusted this intelligence, and viewed Rowland as a useful ally. In 1975, South African military intelligence noted his extensive connections in African and Arab countries, including claims that he had a former secretary of the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) “at his service”. Rowland indicated that Saudi Arabia backed apartheid South Africa “100%” and spoke of a payment of $2-million made by the US to Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, possibly in connection with the looming conflict in Somalia at the time.

1. SA Military Intelligence on Rowland Connections_1975



Conveniently for the South Africans, Rowland was also particularly close to the leader of Angola’s Unita rebels, Jonas Savimbi. Rowland would transport Savimbi between meetings with Reagan officials in the US, and back to “bolt-holes” throughout Africa. Such trips were sometimes paid for by the South Africans.

Rowland helped garner support for Savimbi from the US, South Africa and, as revealed in a newly declassified secret Military Intelligence memo, from Margaret Thatcher’s British government too. The memo, authored by Marquard de Villiers – who was Rowland’s “man” in South Africa, outlined details of a lunch-time appointment in January 1982 between Thatcher and Rowland at the British Prime Minister’s invitation. Over lunch, as the memo reports, Thatcher delivered the “good news” of her personal support for “us” [Pretoria and Lonrho] in support of Savimbi. Going a step further, Thatcher promised to relay this support to US Secretary of State Alexander Hague in Washington DC.

While often formally criticised by the British establishment, Rowland was able to gain the ear of Prime Minister Thatcher in moments like these and seemingly push an agenda with relative ease.

2. SA Military Intelligence Letter on Rowland Meeting Thatcher



Rowland’s ability to cultivate such vast networks among the rich and powerful has long been put down to his extended association with British Intelligence. Indeed, it was thanks to former MI5 agent Sir Joseph Ball that Lonrho first hired Rowland. In addition, one of the members of Rowland’s Lonrho board, at least until 1973, was a confirmed MI6 agent. Rowland was also in close contact with Bill Casey, the head of the CIA (and key apartheid ally, as outlined in last week’s piece in this series), and the deputy chief of Israel’s Mossad, David Kimche. These connections made Rowland the perfect resource for Pretoria both in terms of receiving information and in buying weapons.

The first record of Lonrho’s involvement in helping procure arms for the apartheid regime is from 1978, a year after the compulsory UN embargo was adopted. Lonrho offered to assist with their contacts in West Germany to obtain armoured vehicles.

This continued into at least the mid-1980s when Rowland arranged for Dr Marquard de Villiers – a cardiologist, Lonhro local manager and Rowland’s general man on the ground in Pretoria – to meet David Kimche. Before becoming head of Israel’s spy agency, Kimche had been the director general of Israeli Foreign Affairs and was well connected within the Israeli establishment. Via De Villiers, Kimche offered to help Rowland get his hands on US-made Stinger surface-to-air missiles also known as Red Eyes, if South African-backed Unita forces needed them. At the meeting it was evident that the offer to assist the SADF extended to making contacts for them in Abu Dhabi and facilitating the use of Mozambique as a sanctions busting channel.

3. David Kimche and Rowland_Red Eye Missiles



It is tempting, given Rowland’s highly public and controversial profile, to dismiss him as an anomaly within British business circles. However, despite his cultivated outsider status, Tiny Rowland was very much an insider. He was a businessman who leveraged his powerful international networks to his advantage to turn a profit. He epitomised the rise of a modern capitalism that seamlessly conflates business and politics.

Rowland’s mutually beneficial relationship with the apartheid regime ended with his empire sinking its first platinum mineshaft on the Highveld. Yet like so many apartheid middlemen, he traversed elites, offering to buy the ANC a newspaper in 1993 to assist for the impending elections. For this and other services, Rowland was awarded the Star of South Africa by Mandela’s government in 1996.

While Rowland’s actions may have faded from public memory, his legacy and that of his corporation have not. The miners and widows of Marikana attest to this. We need to find a new way of doing business, where characters like Rowland and those that followed cannot extract profit through clandestine dealings and back-door deals with political elites. We have not done enough to challenge this legacy of apartheid. DM

Photo: Roland “Tiny” Rowland (Evening Standard)

Open Secrets is an independent non-profit with a mission to promote private sector accountability for economic crime and related human rights violations in Southern Africa. www.opensecrets.org.za

Apartheid Guns and Money: A Tale of Profit by Hennie van Vuuren is published by Jacana Media

Read previous articles in the ‘Declassified: Apartheid Profits’ series:

Declassified: Apartheid Profits: Who funded the National Party?
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: The tap root of the National Party
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: The Sanction-busters’ tool kit
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: Nuclear Bunkers and Swiss Bankers
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: André Vlerick, Banker and Bigot
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: Inside the arms money machine
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: Pretoria’s beehive in Paris
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: Who killed Dulcie September?
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: Behind the Iron Curtain
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: Apartheid’s lobbyists in Washington
Declassified: Apartheid Profits: American Guns
OPEN SECRETS
SOUTH AFRICA


Labels: , , , ,


Read more...

Saturday, October 27, 2018

Reading race in antiquity: the many fallacies of Mary Lefkowitz

COMMENT - Prof. Molefi Kete Asante, who coined the phrase Afrocentricity, sabres down Mary Lefkowitz and her reactionary Not Out Of Africa. - MrK

Reading race in antiquity: the many fallacies of Mary Lefkowitz
June 17, 2007 | :
by Molefi Kete Asante

Future historians will write that no intellectual idea has been so maligned in the 20th century as Afrocentric theory, the idea that African people are agents and actors in history.

The recent book by Wellesley professor Mary Lefkowitz, “Not Out of Africa,” continues the unfortunate tradition of failing to question the dominant mythologies of race in the intellectual history of the West by diverting attention to marginal issues.

Rather than a serious discussion of the ideas circulating in the Afrocentric literature or in the classrooms, Lefkowitz has offered the public a pablum history which ignores the substantial evidence of African influence on Europe.

Conservative writers have felt a tremendous need to respond in the most vigorous fashion with their applause to shore up their racial mythologies. And now columnists George Will and Roger Kimball have seen fit to bless Lefkowitz’ book as a sort of definitive moment in intellectual history. It is no such moment.

Anti-African Bias

It is a racial argument clearly fast backpedaling. What it indicates is that we have gone full circle from the Hegelian “Let us forget Africa” to a late 20th-century attack on African scholarship by declaring that major influences on Greece were not out of Africa. And as such, it will simply confirm the inability of some scholars to get beyond the imposition of their particularism of Europe. No one can remove the gifts of Europe, nor should that ever be the aim of scholarship. But Europe cannot impose itself as some universal culture that developed full-blown out of nothing.

The fanfare given “Not Out of Africa” demonstrates a glee, although misinformed, of those who feel some sense of relief that a white scholar has taken on the Afrocentrists — a kind of “white hope” idea. This stems, as I believe George Will has shown in his “Newsweek” essay on the subject, from what is viewed as white salvation from the irrationality of Afrocentrists. It originates in a historical anti-African bias. Roger Kimball nearly gloated in the “Wall St. Journal” that readers would “savor Lefkowitz’ definitive dissection of Afrocentrism.” Contrary to any definitive dissection of Afrocentrism, what Lefkowitz has offered is a definitive exposure of the principal assumptions of a racial structure of classical knowledge.

Lefkowitz is conversant with many Greek sources but, as she admits, this is the first time that she has ventured into these waters. This is unfortunate because she has created a false security among those who believe that Greece sprang like a miracle, unborn and untaught.

Walking a Tightrope

The book is badly written and terribly redundant, as if she is in a hurry to enlarge a relatively poor argument. How may times can you say that George G. M. James should not have used the term “stolen legacy” when he claimed that the Africans influenced the Greeks? James certainly had just as much rhetorical justification as Lefkowitz, who probably chose the unsubtle title “Not Out of Africa” for the same reason as James called his book “Stolen Legacy.”

Ruling classes always seek to promote and to maintain their ruling mythologies. Lefkowitz’ passion in trying to walk a tightrope between support of the false mythology of a Greek miracle and the facts of Egyptian influence on the early Greeks is telling. She seeks to minimize the role Egypt played in civilizing Greece by claiming that only in art and architecture was there real influence. This flies in the face of the ancient observers and beneficiaries of the largesse of the Africans.

Lefkowitz’ work has demonstrated the tremendous power of a false idea, especially when it is advanced in the halls of the academy. I have come to believe that it is a part of a larger falsification that encompasses the various right-wing ideologies that parade as truth. They are rooted in the same dogma: Reason is the gift of the Greeks; the Greeks are Europeans; Europeans are white; white people gave the world reason and philosophy. This is not only a bad idea, it is a false idea. It is a bad idea because it preaches a European triumphalism and it is a false idea because the historical record is contrary.

Four Flaws

Tragically, the idea that Europeans have some different intellectual or scientific ability is accepted doctrine and some scholars will go to any length to try to uphold it. Usually, as Lefkowitz does, they commit four fundamental flaws:

1. They will attack insignificant or trivial issues to obscure the main points.

Lefkowitz has three main axes to grind in her book. The first is that a student told her that she believed Socrates was Black. The second is the allegation that the Greek gods came from Africa, which she attributes to Martin Bernal, the author of “Black Athena,” and to Cheikh Anta Diop, the author of “The African Origin of Civilization.” The third is that freemasonry is the source of James’ claim, in his book “Stolen Legacy,” that the Greeks got many of their major ideas from the Egyptians.

The main point made by Afrocentrists is that Egypt was anterior to Greece, that Greece owes a substantial debt to Egypt and that Egypt should be considered a major contributor to our current knowledge. I think I can say without a doubt that Afrocentrists do not spend time arguing that either Socrates or Cleopatra were Black. I have never seen these ideas written by an Afrocentrist, nor have I heard them discussed in any Afrocentric intellectual forums. Lefkowitz provides us with a hearsay incident which she probably reports accurately. It is not an Afrocentric argument.

2. They will make assertions and offer their own interpretations as evidence.

Lefkowitz makes a statement on page one of her book that “In American universities today, not everyone knows what extreme Afrocentrists are doing in their classrooms. Or even if they do know, they choose not to ask questions.” We are off to a bad start. Who are these extreme Afrocentrists? She does not provide us with one example of something that an extreme Afrocentrist is teaching in a classroom. Not one. But already the reader is inclined to believe that something exists where nothing exists. No matter how passionate, assertion is not evidence.

What Afrocentrists do teach is that you cannot begin the discussion of world history with the Greeks. Creating clouds of suspicion about scholarly colleagues in order to support a racial mythology developed over the past centuries to accompany European enslavement of Africans, imperialism and exploitation will not dissipate the fact of Greece’s debt to Africa.

3. They undermine writers they previously supported in order to maintain the fiction of a Greek miracle.

Lefkowitz and others who once considered Herodotus to be the Father of History now find fault with Herodotus because, as Afrocentrists read Book Two of “Histories,” we find that Herodotus glorifies the achievements of Egypt in relationship to Greece. But Herodotus is not the only ancient Greek writer to be dismissed by classicists who accept what Bernal rightly calls an “Aryan” interpretation of the ancient world.

Aristotle reported that the Egyptians gave to the world the study of geometry and mathematics — and the Aryanists argue that Aristotle made mistakes in what he observed. Lefkowitz carries the denial of the ancient Greeks to a new level by saying, essentially, that we cannot trust Homer, Diogenes, Plutarch or Strabo. Her position is that Strabo, like Herodotus, depended too much on what the Egyptian priests told him. Every Greek who wrote on the overwhelming impact of Egypt (Africa) on Greece (Europe) is discredited or set up to be discredited by the Aryanists.

The abandonment of the Greek authors rests on the belief that these ancient Greek writers cannot be counted upon to support the theories of white supremacy.

4. They will announce both sides of an issue are correct, then move to uphold only the side that supports European triumphalism.

Lefkowitz could have admitted that dynastic Egypt was the source of much of Greek knowledge. Rather, she claims that the only real impact of Egypt on Greece was in art and architecture. This is to state an obvious fact in order to obscure the deeper influences in science, astronomy, geometry, literature, religion, mathematics, law, government, music, medicine and philosophy.

Lefkowitz’ major points are not only flawed but her reasoning is faulty and cannot be sustained by any inquiry into the Greek or Egyptian languages — or into ancient history. She wonders why the Afrocentric perspective is plausible to so many intelligent people. Clearly, it is plausible to intelligent people because they do not believe that there was some unique brand of intelligence that struck the Greeks and created a Greek miracle, willy-nilly, without contact with the civilized world. In most cases, knowledge builds upon knowledge. In the case of the ancient Greeks, they tell us that they built upon the Egyptians. Should we believe them or should we believe the modern Aryanist interpreters who want to dismiss the ancient Greek observers?

In the end I have asked myself, what is Lefkowitz’ point, why does she see the need to challenge Bernal, James and Diop — and to question my integrity? She states very clearly that her project is about sustaining the American myth of European triumphalism. In her own words: “Any attempt to question the authenticity of ancient Greek civilization is of direct concern even to people who ordinarily have little interest in the remote past. Since the founding of this country, ancient Greece has been intimately connected with the ideals of American democracy.”

No one could have given a better reason than that for Lefkowitz’ spirited — but misguided — attempt to defend a falsification of history in the name of attacking Afrocentricity. When all is said and done, a more perfect union of this nation can only be based on facts.

Dr. Molefi Kete Asante, professor and chair of the department of African American Studies at Temple University, is the author of many books on Afrocentric history. He is currently co-editing a book that will rebut the arguments presented by Mary Lefkowitz in “Not Out of Africa.”

COPYRIGHT 1996 Cox, Matthews & Associates
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group

Labels: , , , ,


Read more...